How Will "I" Versus "We" Perform? An Investigation of Future Outlooks and Self-Construals

Kristy K. Dean, Wendi L. Gardner

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Previous theory and research suggests that people generate predictions to prepare for an uncertain future, often basing predictions on task-relevant information like prior performance. Four studies test the hypothesis that preparation via prediction occurs more readily when interdependent (vs. independent) self-construals are salient. This hypothesis was supported when examining chronic tendencies to generate negative predictions (Study 1) and spontaneous predictions in response to task-relevant information (Studies 2, 3, and 4), as well as when self-construals were measured (Studies 1, 2, and 4) and primed (Study 3). Moreover, performance prediction occurs in conjunction with increases in task persistence, but only for individuals with interdependent self-construals. Individuals with independent self-construals tend toward preparation via prediction only when preparation is urgent. Discussion centers on the applicability of within-cultural differences in self-construal on cross-cultural investigations, and implications for future research on predictive judgments.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)947-958
Number of pages12
JournalPersonality and Social Psychology Bulletin
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2014


  • motivated behavior
  • predictions
  • preparation
  • self-construal

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Social Psychology


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