Infection with the human T-lymphotropic virus type 1 (HTLV-1) has been shown to be fundamental to the etiology of Adult T-cell Leukemia/Lymphoma (ATL). The disease is endemic in specific geographic areas but is increasingly reported from non-endemic regions. With increasing number of patients with this entity, the diversity in the clinical features has become apparent. In the past treatment strategies using combination chemotherapy have been unsatisfactory, but more recent trials using adenosine analouges, interferons, and combination of interferons and AZT have shown promise. With increased understanding of the etiology and molecular basis of the disease more effective therapies can be anticipated.
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