Human immunodeficiency viruses appear compartmentalized to the female genital tract in cross-sectional analyses but genital lineages do not persist over time

Marta E. Bull, Laura M. Heath, Jennifer L. McKernan-Mullin, Kelli M. Kraft, Luis Acevedo, Jane E. Hitti, Susan E. Cohn, Kenneth A. Tapia, Sarah E. Holte, Joan A. Dragavon, Robert W. Coombs, James I. Mullins, Lisa M. Frenkel*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

24 Scopus citations

Abstract

Background. Whether unique human immunodeficiency type 1 (HIV) genotypes occur in the genital tract is important for vaccine development and management of drug resistant viruses. Multiple cross-sectional studies suggest HIV is compartmentalized within the female genital tract. We hypothesize that bursts of HIV replication and/or proliferation of infected cells captured in cross-sectional analyses drive compartmentalization but over time genital-specific viral lineages do not form; rather viruses mix between genital tract and blood.Methods. Eight women with ongoing HIV replication were studied during a period of 1.5 to 4.5 years. Multiple viral sequences were derived by single-genome amplification of the HIV C2-V5 region of env from genital secretions and blood plasma. Maximum likelihood phylogenies were evaluated for compartmentalization using 4 statistical tests.Results. In cross-sectional analyses compartmentalization of genital from blood viruses was detected in three of eight women by all tests; this was associated with tissue specific clades containing multiple monotypic sequences. In longitudinal analysis, the tissues-specific clades did not persist to form viral lineages. Rather, across women, HIV lineages were comprised of both genital tract and blood sequences.Conclusions. The observation of genital-specific HIV clades only in cross-sectional analysis and an absence of genital-specific lineages in longitudinal analyses suggest a dynamic interchange of HIV variants between the female genital tract and blood.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1206-1215
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Infectious Diseases
Volume207
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Apr 15 2013

Keywords

  • HIV
  • compartmentalization
  • female genital tract
  • genetic distances
  • monotypic HIV
  • phylogenetics
  • uterine cervix
  • viral lineages

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Infectious Diseases

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