Hybrid magnetic nanostructures (MNS) for magnetic resonance imaging applications

Mrinmoy De, Stanley S. Chou, Hrushikesh M. Joshi, Vinayak P. Dravid*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

64 Scopus citations


The development of MRI contrast agents has experienced its version of the gilded age over the past decade, thanks largely to the rapid advances in nanotechnology. In addition to progress in single mode contrast agents, which ushered in unprecedented R 1 or R 2 sensitivities, there has also been a boon in the development of agents covering more than one mode of detection. These include T 1-PET, T 2-PET T 1-optical, T 2-optical, T 1-T 2 agents and many others. In this review, we describe four areas which we feel have experienced particular growth due to nanotechnology, specifically T 2 magnetic nanostructure development, T 1/T 2-optical dual mode agents, and most recently the T 1-T 2 hybrid imaging systems. In each of these systems, we describe applications including in vitro, in vivo usage and assay development. In all, while the benefits and drawbacks of most MRI contrast agents depend on the application at hand, the recent development in multimodal nanohybrids may curtail the shortcomings of single mode agents in diagnostic and clinical settings by synergistically incorporating functionality. It is hoped that as nanotechnology advances over the next decade, it will produce agents with increased diagnostics and assay relevant capabilities in streamlined packages that can meaningfully improve patient care and prognostics. In this review article, we focus on T 2 materials, its surface functionalization and coupling with optical and/or T 1 agents.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1282-1299
Number of pages18
JournalAdvanced Drug Delivery Reviews
Issue number14-15
StatePublished - Nov 2011


  • Gadolinium
  • Hybrid MRI
  • Iron oxide nanoparticle
  • MRI
  • MRI contrast agent

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pharmaceutical Science


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