Hybrid robotic systems for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke: A review

Francisco Resquín*, Alicia Cuesta Gómez, Jose Gonzalez-Vargas, Fernando Brunetti, Diego Torricelli, Francisco Molina Rueda, Roberto Cano de la Cuerda, Juan Carlos Miangolarra, Jose L Pons

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

52 Scopus citations


In recent years the combined use of functional electrical stimulation (FES) and robotic devices, called hybrid robotic rehabilitation systems, has emerged as a promising approach for rehabilitation of lower and upper limb motor functions. This paper presents a review of the state of the art of current hybrid robotic solutions for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke. For this aim, studies have been selected through a search using web databases: IEEE-Xplore, Scopus and PubMed. A total of 10 different hybrid robotic systems were identified, and they are presented in this paper. Selected systems are critically compared considering their technological components and aspects that form part of the hybrid robotic solution, the proposed control strategies that have been implemented, as well as the current technological challenges in this topic. Additionally, we will present and discuss the corresponding evidences on the effectiveness of these hybrid robotic therapies. The review also discusses the future trends in this field.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1279-1288
Number of pages10
JournalMedical Engineering and Physics
Issue number11
StatePublished - Nov 1 2016


  • Functional electrical stimulation
  • Hybrid technology
  • Rehabilitation
  • Robotics
  • Stroke
  • Upper limb

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biophysics
  • Biomedical Engineering


Dive into the research topics of 'Hybrid robotic systems for upper limb rehabilitation after stroke: A review'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this