Hydration and properties of novel blended cements based on cement kiln dust and blast furnace slag

Maria S. Konsta-Gdoutos*, Surendra P. Shah

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

119 Scopus citations


The aim of the present paper is to address the key technical issues pertaining to the utilization of cement kiln dust (CKD) as an activator for ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBFS) to create nonconventional cementitious binders for concrete. The relatively high alkaline content of CKD is the predominant factor preventing its recycling in cement manufacture. However, it was observed that depending on the water-soluble alkali and sulfate compounds, CKD could provide the environment necessary to activate latent hydraulic materials such as GGBFS. Binary blends containing slag and CKDs from different sources were characterized and compared in terms of the rates of heat evolution and strength development, hydration products, and time of initial setting. A study of the effects of the influencing factors in terms of soluble alkali content, particle size, and free lime content was undertaken. The results confirm the dependence of the dissolution rate of slag on the alkalinity of the reacting system, and the importance of the optimum lime content on the rate of strength gain.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1269-1276
Number of pages8
JournalCement and Concrete Research
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2003


  • Cement kiln dust
  • Compressive strength
  • Hydration
  • X-ray diffraction

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Building and Construction
  • General Materials Science


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