Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome Follow-Up Study: newborn anthropometrics and childhood glucose metabolism

on behalf of the HAPO Follow-up Study Cooperative Research Group

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Aims/hypothesis: We aimed to examine associations of newborn anthropometric measures with childhood glucose metabolism with the hypothesis that greater newborn birthweight, adiposity and cord C-peptide are associated with higher childhood glucose levels and lower insulin sensitivity. Methods: Data from the international, multi-ethnic, population-based Hyperglycemia and Adverse Pregnancy Outcome (HAPO) Study and the HAPO Follow-Up Study were used. The analytic cohort included 4155 children (mean age [SD], 11.4 [1.2] years; 51.0% male). Multiple linear regression was used to examine associations of primary predictors, birthweight, newborn sum of skinfolds (SSF) and cord C-peptide, from HAPO with continuous child glucose outcomes from the HAPO Follow-Up Study. Results: In an initial model that included family history of diabetes and maternal BMI during pregnancy, birthweight and SSF demonstrated a significant, inverse association with 30 min and 1 h plasma glucose levels. In the primary model, which included further adjustment for maternal sum of glucose z scores from an oral glucose tolerance test during pregnancy, the associations were strengthened, and birthweight and SSF were inversely associated with fasting, 30 min, 1 h and 2 h plasma glucose levels. Birthweight and SSF were also associated with higher insulin sensitivity (Matsuda index) (β = 1.388; 95% CI 0.870, 1.906; p < 0.001; β = 0.792; 95% CI 0.340, 1.244; p < 0.001, for birthweight and SSF higher by 1 SD, respectively) in the primary model, while SSF, but not birthweight, was positively associated with the disposition index, a measure of beta cell compensation for insulin resistance (β = 0.034; 95% CI 0.012, 0.056; p = 0.002). Cord C-peptide levels were inversely associated with Matsuda index (β = −0.746; 95% CI −1.188, −0.304; p < 0.001 for cord C-peptide higher by 1 SD) in the primary model. Conclusions/interpretation: This study demonstrates that higher birthweight and SSF are associated with greater childhood insulin sensitivity and lower glucose levels following a glucose load, associations that were further strengthened after adjustment for maternal glucose levels during pregnancy. [Figure not available: see fulltext.]

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)561-570
Number of pages10
Issue number3
StatePublished - Mar 2021


  • Birthweight
  • Childhood glucose metabolism
  • Childhood plasma glucose
  • Fetal exposures
  • Newborn adiposity
  • Newborn anthropometrics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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