Hyperperfusion in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is associated with disease progression and absence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

Michael N. Khoury, Sarah Gheuens, Long Ngo, Xiaoen Wang, David C. Alsop, Igor J. Koralnik*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations

Abstract

We sought to characterize perfusion patterns of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy lesions by arterial spin labelling perfusion magnetic resonance imaging and to analyse their association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, and survival. A total of 22 patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy underwent a clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain within 190 days of symptom onset. The presence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome was determined based on clinical and laboratory criteria. Perfusion within progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy lesions was determined by arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance imaging. We observed intense hyperperfusion within and at the edge of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy lesions in a subset of subjects. This hyperperfusion was quantified by measuring the fraction of lesion volume showing perfusion in excess of twice normal appearing grey matter. Hyperperfused lesion fraction was significantly greater in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy progressors than in survivors (12.8% versus 3.4% P = 0.02) corresponding to a relative risk of progression for individuals with a hyperperfused lesion fraction ≥4.0% of 9.1 (95% confidence interval of 1.4-59.5). The presence of hyperperfusion was inversely related to the occurrence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome at the time of scan (P = 0.03). Indeed, within 3 months after symptom onset, hyperperfusion had a positive predictive value of 88% for absence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance imaging recognized regions of elevated perfusion within lesions of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. These regions might represent virologically active areas operating in the absence of an effective adaptive immune response and correspond with a worse prognosis.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)3441-3450
Number of pages10
JournalBrain
Volume136
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 2013

Keywords

  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Neuroimmunology
  • Neuroinflammation
  • Perfusion imaging
  • Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology

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