Hyperprolactinemia and Preconception Management

Wenyu Huang*, Mark E. Molitch

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter


Prolactinoma is the most common pituitary tumor. Clinically, hyperprolactinemia is manifested as galactorrhea, amenorrhea, or oligomenorrhea, low libido, infertility, decreased bone density, or fractures. Other causes of hyperprolactinemia include pregnancy, medication induced, hypothalamic–pituitary stalk dysfunction, hypothyroidism, and renal insufficiency. Patients with hyperprolactinemia should be evaluated by thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), prolactin (PRL), renal function, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), and a careful history of medication use. A brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) should also be done as clinically indicated. Treatment of hyperprolactinemia is dependent on the underlying causes and symptoms. Prolactinomas are usually treated with dopamine (DA) agonists, while surgery and radiation are rarely required. Microprolactinomas causing non-bothersome galactorrhea without infertility can be monitored without intervention. Hypogonadism and low bone density should also be treated if these disorders still exist after correction of hyperprolactinemia.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationPituitary Disorders throughout the Life Cycle
Subtitle of host publicationA Case-Based Guide
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Number of pages13
ISBN (Electronic)9783030999186
ISBN (Print)9783030999179
StatePublished - Jan 1 2022


  • Amenorrhea
  • Bromocriptine
  • Cabergoline
  • Dopamine agonist
  • Galactorrhea
  • Hyperprolactinemia
  • Infertility
  • Macroadenoma
  • Microadenoma
  • Prolactinoma

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine


Dive into the research topics of 'Hyperprolactinemia and Preconception Management'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this