ICON: Chronic rhinosinusitis

Claus Bachert*, Ruby Pawankar, Luo Zhang, Chaweewan Bunnag, Wytske J. Fokkens, Daniel L. Hamilos, Orathai Jirapongsananuruk, Robert Kern, Eli O. Meltzer, Joaquim Mullol, Robert Naclerio, Renata Pilan, Chae Seo Rhee, Harumi Suzaki, Richard Voegels, Michael Blaiss

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

132 Scopus citations


Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a public health problem that has a significant socio-economic impact. Moreover, the complexity of this disease due to its heterogeneous nature based on the underlying pathophysiology - leading to different disease variants - further complicates our understanding and directions for the most appropriate targeted treatment strategies. Several International/national guidelines/position papers and/or consensus documents are available that present the current knowledge and treatment strategies for CRS. Yet there are many challenges to the management of CRS especially in the case of the more severe and refractory forms of disease. Therefore, the International Collaboration in Asthma, Allergy and Immunology (iCAALL), a collaboration between EAACI, AAAAI, ACAAI, and WAO, has decided to propose an International Consensus (ICON) on Chronic Rhinosinusitis. The purpose of this ICON on CRS is to highlight the key common messages from the existing guidelines, the differences in recommendations as well as the gaps in our current knowledge of CRS, thus providing a concise reference. In this document we discuss the definition of the disease, its relevance, pharmacoeconomics, pathophysiology, phenotypes and endotypes, genetics and risk factors, natural history and co-morbidities as well as clinical manifestations and treatment options in both adults and children comprising pharmacotherapy, surgical interventions and more recent biological approaches. Finally, we have also highlighted the unmet needs that wait to be addressed through future research.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number15
JournalWorld Allergy Organization Journal
Issue number1
StatePublished - 2014


  • Biologicals
  • Chronic rhinosinusitis
  • Co-morbidities
  • Genetics
  • Pathophysiology
  • Pharmacoeconomics
  • Phenotypes
  • Treatment
  • Unmet needs

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine


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