Identification and Quantification of Proteoforms by Mass Spectrometry

Leah V. Schaffer, Robert J. Millikin, Rachel M. Miller, Lissa C. Anderson, Ryan T. Fellers, Ying Ge, Neil L. Kelleher, Richard D. LeDuc, Xiaowen Liu, Samuel H. Payne, Liangliang Sun, Paul M. Thomas, Trisha Tucholski, Zhe Wang, Si Wu, Zhijie Wu, Dahang Yu, Michael R. Shortreed, Lloyd M. Smith*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview article

20 Scopus citations


A proteoform is a defined form of a protein derived from a given gene with a specific amino acid sequence and localized post-translational modifications. In top-down proteomic analyses, proteoforms are identified and quantified through mass spectrometric analysis of intact proteins. Recent technological developments have enabled comprehensive proteoform analyses in complex samples, and an increasing number of laboratories are adopting top-down proteomic workflows. In this review, some recent advances are outlined and current challenges and future directions for the field are discussed.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number1800361
Issue number10
StatePublished - May 2019



  • bioinformatics
  • mass spectrometry
  • proteoform
  • proteoform family
  • top-down proteomics

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology

Cite this

Schaffer, L. V., Millikin, R. J., Miller, R. M., Anderson, L. C., Fellers, R. T., Ge, Y., Kelleher, N. L., LeDuc, R. D., Liu, X., Payne, S. H., Sun, L., Thomas, P. M., Tucholski, T., Wang, Z., Wu, S., Wu, Z., Yu, D., Shortreed, M. R., & Smith, L. M. (2019). Identification and Quantification of Proteoforms by Mass Spectrometry. Proteomics, 19(10), [1800361].