Identification of amino acids in HIV-1 and avian sarcoma virus integrase subsites required for specific recognition of the long terminal repeat ends

Aiping Chen, Irene T. Weber, Robert W. Harrison, Jonathan Leis*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

55 Scopus citations

Abstract

A tetramer model for HIV-1 integrase (IN) with DNA representing 20 bp of the U3 and U5 long terminal repeats (LTR) termini was assembled using structural and biochemical data and molecular dynamics simulations. It predicted amino acid residues on the enzyme surface that can interact with the LTR termini. A separate structural alignment of HIV-1, simian sarcoma virus (SIV), and avian sarcoma virus (ASV) INs predicted which of these residues were unique. To determine whether these residues were responsible for specific recognition of the LTR termini, the amino acids from ASV IN were substituted into the structurally equivalent positions of HIV-1 IN, and the ability of the chimeras to 3′ process U5 HIV-1 or ASV duplex oligos was determined. This analysis demonstrated that there are multiple amino acid contacts with the LTRs and that substitution of ASV IN amino acids at many of the analogous positions in HIV-1 IN conferred partial ability to cleave ASV substrates with a concomitant loss in the ability to cleave the homologous HIV-1 substrate. HIV-1 IN residues that changed specificity include Val72, Ser153, Lys 160-Ile161, Gly163-Val165, and His171-Leu172. Because a chimera that combines several of these substitutions showed a specificity of cleavage of the U5 ASV substrate closer to wild type ASV IN compared with chimeras with individual amino acid substitutions, it appears that the sum of the IN interactions with the LTRs determines the specificity. Finally, residues Ser153 and Val 72 in HIV-1 IN are among those that change in enzymes that develop resistance to naphthyridine carboxamide- and diketo acid-related inhibitors in cells. Thus, amino acid residues involved in recognition of the LTRs are among these positions that change in development of drug resistance.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4173-4182
Number of pages10
JournalJournal of Biological Chemistry
Volume281
Issue number7
DOIs
StatePublished - Feb 17 2006

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry
  • Molecular Biology
  • Cell Biology

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