Importance: Cardiac fibrosis is exceedingly rare in young adults. Identification of genetic variants that cause early-onset cardiomyopathy may inform novel biological pathways. Experimental models and a single case report have linked genetic deficiency of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), a downstream target of cardiac transforming growth factor β, with cardiac fibrosis. Objective: To perform detailed cardiovascular phenotyping and genotyping in young adults from an Amish family with a frameshift variant (c.699_700dupTA) in SERPINE1, the gene that codes for PAI-1. Design, Setting, and Participants: This observational study included participants from 3 related nuclear families from an Amish community in the primary analysis and participants from the extended family in the secondary analysis. Participants were recruited from May 2015 to December 2016, and analysis took place from June 2015 to June 2020. Main Outcomes and Measures: (1) Multimodality cardiovascular imaging (transthoracic echocardiography and cardiac magnetic resonance imaging), (2) whole-exome sequencing, and (3) induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Results: Among 17 participants included in the primary analysis, the mean (interquartile range) age was 23.7 (20.9-29.9) years and 9 individuals (52.9%) were confirmed to be homozygous for the SERPINE1 c.699_700dupTA variant. Late gadolinium enhancement was present in 6 of 9 homozygous participants (67%) with absolute PAI-1 deficiency vs 0 of 8 in the control group (P =.001). Late gadolinium enhancement patterns tended to be dense and linear, usually subepicardial but also midmyocardial and transmural with noncoronary distributions. Targeted whole-exome sequencing analysis identified that homozygosity for c.699_700dupTA SERPINE1 was the only shared pathogenic variant or variant of uncertain significance after examination of cardiomyopathy genes among those with late gadolinium enhancement. Induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes from participants homozygous for the SERPINE1 c.699_700dupTA variant exhibited susceptibility to cardiomyocyte injury in response to angiotensin II (increased transforming growth factor β1 secretion and release of lactate dehydrogenase) compared with control induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. In a secondary analysis based on echocardiography in 155 individuals across 3 generations in the extended family, no difference in global longitudinal strain was observed in carriers for the SERPINE1 c.699_700dupTA variant compared with wild-type participants, supporting an autosomal recessive inheritance pattern. Conclusions and Relevance: In this study, a highly penetrant, autosomal recessive, cardiac fibrosis phenotype among young adults with homozygous frameshift variant for SERPINE1 was identified, suggesting an optimal range of PAI-1 levels are needed for cardiac homeostasis.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine