Identifying and Treating Opioid Misuse in Pediatric Patients

Maria H. Rahmandar*, R. Claire Roden, Casey B. Cottrill

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingChapter

Abstract

Opioid use disorder (OUD) is a chronic illness that often has its roots in the adolescent period. The risk of adolescent death from opioid overdose has surpassed the risk of death from motor vehicle accidents and gun violence. Most adolescents who meet criteria for OUD do not receive treatment for this problem, and many pediatricians do not adequately screen for substance use. Though room for improvement exists, useful prevention methods, validated screening tools, and affective treatment modalities have been developed. In this chapter, we discuss risk factors for opioid misuse; consider primary, secondary, and tertiary prevention of OUD; explain the utility of the SBIRT (screening, brief intervention, and referral to treatment) technique, and briefly summarize medical management of OUD including buprenorphine, methadone and naltrexone. In addition we review management of opioid overdose and management of severe, acute pain in the setting of OUD on maintenance medication.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationOpioid Therapy in Infants, Children, and Adolescents
PublisherSpringer International Publishing
Pages155-171
Number of pages17
ISBN (Electronic)9783030362874
ISBN (Print)9783030362867
DOIs
StatePublished - Jan 1 2020

Keywords

  • Adolescent
  • Buprenorphine
  • Heroin
  • Intravenous substance use
  • Methadone
  • Naltrexone
  • Opioid analgesics
  • Opioid use disorder
  • Opioid-related disorders
  • Psychiatric status rating scales
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • General Medicine
  • Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics(all)

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