IL-1β and TNF-α in prostatic secretions are indicators in the evaluation of men with chronic prostatitis

Robert B. Nadler*, Alisa E. Koch, Elizabeth A. Calhoun, Phillip L. Campbell, Denise L. Pruden, Charles L. Bennett, Paul R. Yarnold, Anthony J. Schaeffer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

192 Scopus citations


Purpose: Chronic Prostatitis, or Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome [CPPS], is a common disorder characterized by pelvic pain and varying degrees of inflammation in expressed prostatic secretions (EPS). In search of markers to more clearly define CPPS, we compared proinflammatory cytokines interleukin- 1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α, (TNF-α) levels in EPS from men with CPPS, to healthy men and men with Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia (BPH). Methods: 78 men: controls (n = 16), BPH (n = 14), CPPS IIIA [≥10 white blood cells per high power field (WBC/hpf) in EPS] (n = 18), CPPS IIIB [<10 WBC/hpf in EPS] (n = 20), and asymptomatic inflammatory prostatitis (AIP) (n = 10) were evaluated for EPS WBC, and IL-1β and TNF-α by ELISA. Results: IL-1β and TNF-α, levels in EPS were usually detectable in men with CPPS IIIA (89% and 45%, respectively) or AIP (90%; 100%), but less often in controls (31%; 17%), BPH (57%; 15%), and CPPS IIIB (35%; 15%) respectively. IL-1β and TNF- α, levels were higher in CPPS IIIA versus CPPS IIIB, and in AIP versus controls or BPH (p's < 0.001). Cut-points for IL-1β and TNF-α, discriminated AIP from controls (predictive values = 94% and 83%, respectively) and CPPS IIIA from CPPS IIIB (predictive values 84% and 100%). Overall, there was a correlation between IL-1β and TNF-α (p < 0.003), but no correlation between WBC and IL-1β (p < 0.1) or TNF-α (p < 0.50). Conclusions: Cytokines are frequently present and elevated in the EPS from men with CPPS IIIA and AIP and provide a novel means for identification, characterization and potential management of men with CPPS that differs from traditional methods based on WBC.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)214-218
Number of pages5
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jul 2000


  • Chronic pelvic pain syndrome
  • Cytokines
  • Inflammation
  • Prostatitis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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