Atopic asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease of the lungs generally marked by excessive Th2 inflammation. The role of allergen-specific IgG in asthma is still controversial; however, a receptor of IgG-immune complexes (IgG-ICs), FcγRIII, has been shown to promote Th2 responses through an unknown mechanism. Herein, we demonstrate that allergen-specific IgG-ICs, formed upon reexposure to allergen, promoted Th2 responses in two different models of IC-mediated inflammation that were independent of a preformed T cell memory response. Development of Th2-type airway inflammation was shown to be both FcγRIII and TLR4 dependent, and T cells were necessary and sufficient for this process to occur, even in the absence of type 2 innate lymphoid cells. We sought to identify downstream targets of FcγRIII signaling that could contribute to this process and demonstrated that bone marrow-derived DCs, alveolar macrophages, and respiratory DCs significantly upregulated IL-33 when activated through FcγRIII and TLR4. Importantly, IC-induced Th2 inflammation was dependent on the ST2/IL-33 pathway. Our results suggest that allergen-specific IgG can enhance secondary responses by ligating FcγRIII on antigen-presenting cells to augment development of Th2mediated responses in the lungs via an IL-33-dependent mechanism.
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