Image-guided surgery and craniofacial applications: mastering the unseen

James C. Wang, Laszlo Nagy*, Joshua C. Demke

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Image-guided surgery potentially enhances intraoperative safety and outcomes in a variety of craniomaxillofacial procedures. We explore the efficiency of one intraoperative navigation system in a single complex craniofacial case, review the initial and recurring costs, and estimate the added cost (e.g., additional setup time, registration). We discuss the potential challenges and benefits of utilizing image-guided surgery in our specific case and its benefits in terms of educational and teaching purposes and compare this with traditional osteotomies that rely on a surgeon’s thorough understanding of anatomy coupled with tactile feedback to blindly guide the osteotome during surgery. A 13-year-old presented with untreated syndromic multi-suture synostosis, brachycephaly, severe exorbitism, and midface hypoplasia. For now, initial costs are high, recurring costs are relatively low, and there are perceived benefits of imaged-guided surgery as an excellent teaching tool for visualizing difficult and often unseen anatomy through computerized software and multi-planar real-time images.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number43
JournalMaxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
Issue number1
StatePublished - Dec 2015


  • Apert Syndrome
  • Craniofacial Surgery
  • Craniosynostosis
  • Pediatric Intensive Care Unit
  • Pierre Robin Sequence

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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