Imaging and Biomarkers in Diabetic Macular Edema and Diabetic Retinopathy

Changyow C. Kwan, Amani A. Fawzi*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

76 Scopus citations


Purpose of Review: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is the leading cause of acquired vision loss in adults across the globe. Early identification and treatment of patients with DR is paramount for vision preservation. The aim of this review paper is to outline current and new imaging techniques and biomarkers that are valuable for clinical diagnosis and management of DR. Recent Findings: Ultrawide field imaging and automated deep learning algorithms are recent advancements on traditional fundus photography and fluorescein angiography. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography are techniques that image retinal anatomy and vasculature and OCT is routinely used to monitor response to treatment. Many circulating, vitreous, and genetic biomarkers have been studied to facilitate disease detection and development of new treatments. Summary: Recent advancements in retinal imaging and identification of promising new biomarkers for DR have the potential to increase detection, risk stratification, and treatment for patients with DR.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number95
JournalCurrent diabetes reports
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 1 2019


  • Biomarkers
  • Diabetic macular edema
  • Diabetic retinopathy
  • Retinal imaging

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Internal Medicine
  • Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism


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