Imaging of transgender patients: expected findings and complications of gender reassignment therapy

Uterine and Ovarian Cancer Disease Focused Panel of SAR

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

5 Scopus citations

Abstract

Objectives: Gender dysphoria is defined as a conflict between the biological gender and the gender with which the person identifies. Gender reassignment therapy can alter external sexual features to resemble those of the desired gender and are broadly classified into two types, female to male (FTM) and male to female (MTF). In this paper we describe expected findings and complications of gender reassignment therapy. Methods: Collaborative multi-institutional project supported by Ovarian and Uterine Cancer Disease Focused panel of Society of Abdominal Radiology. Results: Gender dysphoria is defined as a conflict between the biological gender and the gender with which the person identifies. Gender reassignment therapy can alter external sexual features to resemble those of the desired gender and are broadly classified into two types, female to male (FTM) and male to female (MTF). These therapies include hormonal treatment as well as surgical procedures. FTM genital reconstructive therapy includes creation of a neophallus, which can be achieved by metoidioplasty or phalloplasty with mastectomy, along with testosterone administration. MTF gender reassignment surgery includes complete removal of external genitalia with penectomy and orchiectomy, with vaginoplasty, clitoroplasty, labiaplasty, and breast augmentation along with estrogen supplements. Conclusion: Surgical techniques alter the standard anatomy and make imaging interpretation challenging if radiologists are unfamiliar with expected post-operative appearances. It is important to recognize the complications related to surgical and non-surgical treatment of gender dysphoria to avoid interpretation errors. Furthermore, increasing the prevalence of transgender patients requires increased sensitivity when interpreting imaging studies to reduce the potential for misdiagnoses in reporting due to frequently incomplete available clinical history.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2886-2898
Number of pages13
JournalAbdominal Radiology
Volume44
Issue number8
DOIs
StatePublished - Aug 15 2019

Keywords

  • Computed tomography
  • Gender dysphoria
  • Magnetic resonance imaging
  • Sex reassignment surgery
  • Transgender

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Radiological and Ultrasound Technology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Gastroenterology
  • Urology

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