Immune checkpoints: A therapeutic target in triple negative breast cancer

Akhil Chawla, Anne V. Philips, Gheath Alatrash, Elizabeth Mittendorf*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalComment/debatepeer-review

35 Scopus citations


Early clinical trials investigating monoclonal antibodies targeting the T-cell inhibitory receptor programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligand PD-L1 have shown efficacy in melanoma, non-small cell lung cancer and renal cell carcinoma. We recently demonstrated PD-L1 expression in 20% of triple negative breast cancers suggesting that targeting the PD-1/PD-L1 immune checkpoint may be an effective treatment modality in patients with this disease.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numbere28325
Issue number4
StatePublished - 2014
Externally publishedYes


  • Biomarker
  • Immunotherapy
  • PD-L1
  • PI3K
  • Triple negative breast cancer

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Immunology and Allergy
  • Immunology


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