Immune microenvironment landscape in CNS tumors and role in responses to immunotherapy

Hinda Najem, Mustafa Khasraw, Amy B. Heimberger*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

9 Scopus citations


Despite the important evolution of immunotherapeutic agents, brain tumors remain, in general, refractory to immune therapeutics. Recent discoveries have revealed that the glioma microenvironment includes a wide variety of immune cells in various states that play an important role in the process of tumorigenesis. Anti-tumor immune activity may be occurring or induced in immunogenic hot spots or at the invasive edge of central nervous system (CNS) tumors. Understanding the complex heterogeneity of the immune microenvironment in gliomas will likely be the key to unlocking the full potential of immunotherapeutic strategies. An essential consideration will be the induction of immunological effector responses in the setting of the numerous aspects of immunosuppression and evasion. As such, immune therapeutic combinations are a fundamental objective for clinical studies in gliomas. Through immune profiling conducted on immune competent murine models of glioma and ex vivo human glioma tissue, we will discuss how the frequency, distribution of immune cells within the microenvironment, and immune modulatory processes, may be therapeutically modulated to lead to clinical benefits.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number2032
Issue number8
StatePublished - Aug 2021


  • CNS metastasis
  • Glioma
  • Immune checkpoints
  • Immune composition
  • Immune therapy
  • T cells
  • Tumor associated macrophages/microglia
  • Tumor microenvironment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


Dive into the research topics of 'Immune microenvironment landscape in CNS tumors and role in responses to immunotherapy'. Together they form a unique fingerprint.

Cite this