Immune Modulatory Short Noncoding RNAs Targeting the Glioblastoma Microenvironment

Jun Wei, Eli Gilboa, George A. Calin, Amy B. Heimberger*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


Glioblastomas are heterogeneous and have a poor prognosis. Glioblastoma cells interact with their neighbors to form a tumor-permissive and immunosuppressive microenvironment. Short noncoding RNAs are relevant mediators of the dynamic crosstalk among cancer, stromal, and immune cells in establishing the glioblastoma microenvironment. In addition to the ease of combinatorial strategies that are capable of multimodal modulation for both reversing immune suppression and enhancing antitumor immunity, their small size provides an opportunity to overcome the limitations of blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability. To enhance glioblastoma delivery, these RNAs have been conjugated with various molecules or packed within delivery vehicles for enhanced tissue-specific delivery and increased payload. Here, we focus on the role of RNA therapeutics by appraising which types of nucleotides are most effective in immune modulation, lead therapeutic candidates, and clarify how to optimize delivery of the therapeutic RNAs and their conjugates specifically to the glioblastoma microenvironment.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article number682129
JournalFrontiers in Oncology
StatePublished - Aug 31 2021


  • antisense oligonucleotide
  • aptamer
  • glioblastoma
  • microRNA
  • noncoding RNAs
  • siRNA
  • tumor microenvironment

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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