Immunocytochemical analysis of prostate stem cell antigen as an adjunct marker for the detection of urothelial transitional cell carcinoma in voided urine specimens

Lirong Cheng, Robert E. Reiter*, Yusheng Jin, Hirschowitz Sharon, Jeffrey Wieder, Timothy F Lane, Jianyu Rao

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

23 Scopus citations


Purpose: Prostate stem cell antigen (PSCA), a homologue of the Ly-6/Thy-1 family of cell surface antigens, has been shown to be increased in a majority of human transitional cell carcinomas. We tested the possibility of using PSCA as an adjunct marker for urine cytology. Materials and Methods: Immunocytochemical analysis was performed on 44 archived voided urine samples obtained from 3 groups of patients based on initial voided urine cytological results and subsequent followup biopsy findings. Group 1 (14 of 44 patients) had positive findings on cytology and histology, group 2 (16 of 44) had negative cytology but positive histology, and group 3 (14 of 44) had negative findings on cytology and histology. Cytological slides prepared from 10 fresh voided urine samples were also analyzed. Papanicoloau stained archived urine slides were de-stained and re-stained immunocytochemically with a monoclonal antibody against PSCA. Immunofluorescence followed by laser scanning cytometer analysis was also performed on archived slides from 2 representative cases. Results: Sensitivity and specificity were 46.7% and 100% for cytology alone, respectively, and 80% and 85.7% for PSCA alone, respectively. PSCA immunostaining was positive in 92.8% group 1, 68.8% group 2 and only 14.3% group 3 samples. The difference in positive PSCA findings in groups 2 and 3 were statistically significant at p <0.01 by chi-square test. Whereas some superficial umbrella cells showed slight staining by immunocytochemistry, it was feasible to distinguish the expression levels between tumor and normal superficial umbrella cells quantitatively using immunofluorescence coupled with laser scan cytometry analysis. Conclusions: Immunocytochemical analysis of PSCA on archived voided urine samples may provide a simple and quantitative adjunct marker for cytological diagnosis of urothelial carcinoma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2094-2100
Number of pages7
JournalJournal of Urology
Issue number6
StatePublished - Jun 1 2003


  • Antigens, surface
  • Carcinoma, urothelium
  • Cytology, urine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Urology


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