Three cases of pulmonary aspergillosis in a "high risk" population of renal transplant recipients are presented. The source of infection was traced to the forced air exhaust system of the Transplantation Unit. Early definitive diagnosis of the infection was very important for effective management. Immunologic monitoring was demonstrated to be instrumental in indicating the early presence of infection, and as a guideline to reduced immunosuppression during therapy. Bronchoscopy with brushings and endobronchial cavitary biopsy were valuable methods for obtaining the infected tissue. Amphotericin B was effective when therapy was started early. Adequate levels of the drug were obtained by varying the dose and frequency of administration according to serum inhibitory titers. Control of infection was aided by immunologic monitoring at regular intervals.
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