Immunomonitoring in glioma immunotherapy: current status and future perspectives

Jonathan B. Lamano, Leonel Ampie, Winward Choy, Kartik Kesavabhotla, Joseph D. DiDomenico, Daniel E. Oyon, Andrew T. Parsa, Orin Bloch*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

14 Scopus citations


Given the continued poor clinical outcomes and refractory nature of glioblastoma multiforme to traditional interventions, immunotherapy is gaining traction due to its potential for specific tumor-targeting and long-term antitumor protective surveillance. Currently, development of glioma immunotherapy relies on overall survival as an endpoint in clinical trials. However, the identification of surrogate immunologic biomarkers can accelerate the development of successful immunotherapeutic strategies. Immunomonitoring techniques possess the potential to elucidate immunological mechanisms of antitumor responses, monitor disease progression, evaluate therapeutic effect, identify candidates for immunotherapy, and serve as prognostic markers of clinical outcome. Current immunomonitoring assays assess delayed-type hypersensitivity, T cell proliferation, cytotoxic T-lymphocyte function, cytokine secretion profiles, antibody titers, and lymphocyte phenotypes. Yet, no single immunomonitoring technique can reliably predict outcomes, relegating immunological markers to exploratory endpoints. In response, the most recent immunomonitoring assays are incorporating emerging technologies and novel analysis techniques to approach the goal of identifying a competent immunological biomarker which predicts therapy responsiveness and clinical outcome. This review addresses the current status of immunomonitoring in glioma vaccine clinical trials with emphasis on correlations with clinical response.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1-13
Number of pages13
JournalJournal of Neuro-Oncology
Issue number1
StatePublished - Mar 1 2016


  • Glioblastoma
  • Glioma
  • Immunomonitoring
  • Immunotherapy
  • Vaccine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Clinical Neurology
  • Neurology
  • Oncology
  • Cancer Research


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