Immunotherapy and Radiotherapy Combinations for Sarcoma

Qian S. Zhang, John P. Hayes, Vinai Gondi, Seth Michaels Pollack*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review

1 Scopus citations


Sarcomas are a heterogeneous group of bone and soft tissue tumors. Survival outcomes for advanced (unresectable or metastatic) disease remain poor, so therapeutic improvements are needed. Radiotherapy plays an integral role in the neoadjuvant and adjuvant treatment of localized disease as well as in the treatment of metastatic disease. Combining radiotherapy with immunotherapy to potentiate immunotherapy has been used in a variety of cancers other than sarcoma, and there is opportunity to further investigate combining immunotherapy with radiotherapy to try to improve outcomes in sarcoma. In this review, we describe the diversity of the tumor immune microenvironments for sarcomas and describe the immunomodulatory effects of radiotherapy. We discuss studies on the timing of radiotherapy relative to immunotherapy and studies on the radiotherapy dose and fractionation regimen to be used in combination with immunotherapy. We describe the impact of radiotherapy on the tumor immune microenvironment. We review completed and ongoing clinical trials combining radiotherapy with immunotherapy for sarcoma and propose future directions for studies combining immunotherapy with radiotherapy in the treatment of sarcoma.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)229-242
Number of pages14
JournalSeminars in Radiation Oncology
Issue number2
StatePublished - Apr 2024

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology
  • Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging
  • Cancer Research


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