Immunotherapy in Biliary Tract Cancers: Where Are We?

Aparna Kalyan, Harshit Khosla, Richard D. Kim*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalReview articlepeer-review


Purpose of Review: Biliary tract cancers (BTCs) are a heterogenous group of cancers arising from the biliary tract. The hallmark of these cancers is the advanced stage of presentation and a paucity of durable treatment options. Despite the advances in targeted therapy and immunotherapy in solid tumors, systemic cytotoxic chemotherapy has remained the mainstay for cholangiocarcinomas. Recent Findings: With advances in the understanding of the tumor microenvironment, genetic features, and inflammatory milieu, have led to the identification of tumor-infiltrating immune cells as indicators of prognosis and response to treatment in BTC. Through an improved comprehension of immunology, immuno-oncology is becoming another pillar of treatment along with traditional radiation, surgery, cytotoxic chemotherapy, and targeted therapies. Summary: This article reviews the evidence for immunotherapy use in cholangiocarcinoma, which still being in infancy, and offers promising new novel options for the management of biliary tract cancers.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1821-1828
Number of pages8
JournalCurrent oncology reports
Issue number12
StatePublished - Dec 2022


  • Biliary cancer
  • Cholangiocarcinoma
  • Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors
  • Immunotherapy
  • Targeted therapy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Oncology


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