Impaired cerebral autoregulation and elevation in plasma glial fibrillary acidic protein level during cardiopulmonary bypass surgery for CHD

Ronald B. Easley*, Bradley Scott Marino, Jacky Jennings, Amy E. Cassedy, Kathleen K. Kibler, Kenneth Martin Brady, Dean B. Andropoulos, Marissa Brunetti, Charles Wallace Hogue, Eugenie S. Heitmiller, Jennifer K. Lee, James Spaeth, Allen D. Everett

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

16 Scopus citations


Background Cerebrovascular reactivity monitoring has been used to identify the lower limit of pressure autoregulation in adult patients with brain injury. We hypothesise that impaired cerebrovascular reactivity and time spent below the lower limit of autoregulation during cardiopulmonary bypass will result in hypoperfusion injuries to the brain detectable by elevation in serum glial fibrillary acidic protein level. Methods We designed a multicentre observational pilot study combining concurrent cerebrovascular reactivity and biomarker monitoring during cardiopulmonary bypass. All children undergoing bypass for CHD were eligible. Autoregulation was monitored with the haemoglobin volume index, a moving correlation coefficient between the mean arterial blood pressure and the near-infrared spectroscopy-based trend of cerebral blood volume. Both haemoglobin volume index and glial fibrillary acidic protein data were analysed by phases of bypass. Each patient's autoregulation curve was analysed to identify the lower limit of autoregulation and optimal arterial blood pressure. Results A total of 57 children had autoregulation and biomarker data for all phases of bypass. The mean baseline haemoglobin volume index was 0.084. Haemoglobin volume index increased with lowering of pressure with 82% demonstrating a lower limit of autoregulation (41±9 mmHg), whereas 100% demonstrated optimal blood pressure (48±11 mmHg). There was a significant association between an individual's peak autoregulation and biomarker values (p=0.01). Conclusions Individual, dynamic non-invasive cerebrovascular reactivity monitoring demonstrated transient periods of impairment related to possible silent brain injury. The association between an impaired autoregulation burden and elevation in the serum brain biomarker may identify brain perfusion risk that could result in injury.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)55-65
Number of pages11
JournalCardiology in the young
Issue number1
StatePublished - Jan 1 2018


  • Autoregulation
  • CHD
  • cardiopulmonary bypass
  • cerebrovascular reactivity

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Pediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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