Implementation of pharmacogenomics into inpatient general medicine

Thomas Chen*, Peter H. O'Donnell, Merisa Middlestadt, Gregory W. Ruhnke, Keith Danahey, Xander M.R. Van Wijk, Anish Choksi, Randall Knoebel, Seth Hartman, Kiang Teck Jerry Yeo, Paula N. Friedman, Mark J. Ratain, Edith A. Nutescu, Kevin J. O'Leary, Minoli A. Perera, David O. Meltzer

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

3 Scopus citations


Pharmacogenomics is a crucial piece of personalized medicine. Preemptive pharmacogenomic testing is only used sparsely in the inpatient setting and there are few models to date for fostering the adoption of pharmacogenomic treatment in the inpatient setting. We created a multi-institutional project in Chicago to enable the translation of pharmacogenomics into inpatient practice. We are reporting our implementation process and barriers we encountered with solutions. This study, 'Implementation of Point-of-Care Pharmacogenomic Decision Support Accounting for Minority Disparities', sought to implement pharmacogenomics into inpatient practice at three sites: The University of Chicago, Northwestern Memorial Hospital, and the University of Illinois at Chicago. This study involved enrolling African American adult patients for preemptive genotyping across a panel of actionable germline variants predicting drug response or toxicity risk. We report our approach to implementation and the barriers we encountered engaging hospitalists and general medical providers in the inpatient pharmacogenomic intervention. Our strategies included: a streamlined delivery system for pharmacogenomic information, attendance at hospital medicine section meetings, use of physician and pharmacist champions, focus on hospitalists' care and optimizing system function to fit their workflow, hand-offs, and dealing with hospitalists turnover. Our work provides insights into strategies for the initial engagement of inpatient general medicine providers that we hope will benefit other institutions seeking to implement pharmacogenomics in the inpatient setting.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)19-23
Number of pages5
JournalPharmacogenetics and genomics
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 1 2023


  • implementation
  • pharmacogenomics
  • precision medicine

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Genetics(clinical)
  • General Pharmacology, Toxicology and Pharmaceutics
  • Genetics
  • Molecular Medicine
  • Molecular Biology


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