Importance sampling for polarization-mode dispersion: Techniques and applications

Gino Biondini*, William L. Kath, Curtis R. Menyuk

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

64 Scopus citations


The basic theory of importance sampling (IS) as relevant to polarization-mode dispersion (PMD) in optical fibers is discussed, and its application to Monte Carlo (MC) simulations of PMD-induced transmission impairments is demonstrated. The use of IS allows rare PMD events to be simulated much more efficiently than with standard MC methods. As a consequence, methods employing IS provide natural and effective tools to assess PMD-induced impairments and outages in optical transmission systems at realistic probability levels.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1201-1215
Number of pages15
JournalJournal of Lightwave Technology
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2004


  • Importance sampling (IS)
  • Monte Carlo (MC) simulations,
  • Optical fiber communications
  • Polarization-mode dispersion (PMD)

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics


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