Background: Challenges exist with heterotaxy due to the complexity of heart disease, abnormal venous connections, and infection risks. This study aims to understand heart transplant outcomes for children with heterotaxy. Methods: All children with congenital heart disease listed for transplant from 1993 to 2018 were included. Those with and without heterotaxy were compared. Waitlist outcomes and survival post-listing and transplant were analyzed. Post-transplant risk factors were identified using multiphase parametric hazard modeling. Results: There were 4814 children listed, of whom 196 (4%) had heterotaxy. Heterotaxy candidates were older (5.8 ± 5.7 vs 4.2 ± 5.5 years, p < 0.01), listed at a lower urgency status (29.8% vs 18.4%, p < 0.01), more commonly single ventricle physiology (71.3% vs 59.2%, p < 0.01), and less often supported by mechanical ventilation (22% vs 29.1%, p < 0.05) or extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (3.6% vs 7.5%, p < 0.05). There were no differences in waitlist outcomes of transplant, death, or removal. Overall, post-transplant survival was worse for children with heterotaxy: one-year survival 77.2% vs 85.1%, with and without heterotaxy, respectively. Heterotaxy was an independent predictor for early mortality in the earliest era (1993-2004), HR 2.09, CI 1.16-3.75, p = 0.014. When stratified by era, survival improved with time. Heterotaxy patients had a lower freedom from infection and from severe rejection, but no difference in vasculopathy or malignancy. Conclusions: Mortality risk associated with heterotaxy is mitigated in the recent transplant era. Early referral may improve waitlist outcomes for heterotaxy patients who otherwise have a lower status at listing. Lower freedom from both infection and severe rejection after transplant in heterotaxy highlights the challenges of balancing immune suppression.
- congenital heart disease
- pediatric heart transplant
- situs inversus
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
- Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine