Improved prediction model for time-dependent deformations of concrete: Part 2-Basic creep

Zdeněk P. Bažant*, Joong Koo Kim

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

56 Scopus citations


The second part of this series presents the formulae for the prediction of basic creep of concrete, i.e. creep at no moisture exchange. The formulae give the secant uniaxial compliance function which depends on the stress level, and, as a special case, the compliance function for linear structural analysis according to the principle of superposition. The formulae are based on the recently developed solidification theory for concrete creep which takes into account simultaneous ageing, satisfies all the basic thermodynamic requirements, and avoids divergence of creep curves. The formulae, which describe both creep and elastic properties, involve only four free material parameters. All four appear linearly, so that optimum data fits can be obtained by linear regression. For the frequent situations where no test data for the particular concrete to be used are available, empirical formulae for predicting these four parameters from the concrete mix composition and the standard compressive strength are given. These formulae, however, involve considerable error. To avoid it, one should, whenever possible, carry out measurements of the elastic modulus and, if possible, also the short-time creep of 7 to 28 days duration. With such measurements, greatly improved predictions can be achieved. The predictions are compared with 17 extensive data sets taken from the literature, and the coefficients of variation of the deviations are found to be smaller than with previous models.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)409-421
Number of pages13
JournalMaterials and Structures
Issue number6
StatePublished - Nov 1 1991

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Civil and Structural Engineering
  • Building and Construction
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Mechanics of Materials


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