This Part presents a refinement of the BP model for the effects of temperature on the basic creep and drying creep of concrete. The temperature effect on basic creep is introduced through two different activation energies, one for the effect of temperature increase on the rate of hydration, which causes a decrease of creep, and one for the effect of temperature increase on the rate of creep, which causes an increase of creep. The dichotomy of these two opposing temperature influences is an essential feature, required for good agreement with test data. The greatest error in basic creep is again caused by the prediction of the material parameters from concrete composition and strength. This error can be largely eliminated by conducting limited short-time basic creep tests at different temperatures. Comparisons with 13 different data sets from the literature show a satisfactory agreement, better than that achieved with previous models, while at the same time the scope of the present model is broader. The effect of temperature on the creep of drying specimens is rather different because heating causes a moisture loss from unsealed specimens. The paper presents prediction formulae which modify those for drying creep at room temperature on the basis of the activation energy concept and take into account the effect of heating on the moisture loss. Comparisons with the limited test data that exist show satisfactory agreement. No additional material parameters depending on concrete composition and strength are introduced for drying creep.
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