Purpose of Review: Women remain underrepresented in urology despite being well-represented in medicine overall. A more diverse urological workforce has the potential to lead to better health outcomes for patients. This paper presents an overview of barriers faced by women in urology at the student, resident, and attending level and potential solutions to mitigate these issues. Recent Findings: Although the number of women entering urology has increased since the first woman became a board-certified urologist in 1962, women still are underrepresented, advance more slowly, and hold only a small percentage of leadership positions. Women in urology and surgical fields in general face numerous challenges and obstacles which can be improved to bring and keep more women in the field of urology. Recent efforts by both academic urologists and trainees themselves offer hope for change. Summary: Women in urology face challenges in the field which include more limited mentorship opportunities, harassment and bias, and ‘pigeonholing’. Recent efforts by both academic urologists and trainees themselves offer hope for change to attract and keep more women in the field. These efforts include the American Urological Association's public commitment to advocating for and fostering a diverse and inclusive environment within urology. A more diverse urological workforce has the potential to lead to better health outcomes for patients, particularly in those populations where access to urological care may be limited.
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