In x Ga 1-x as nanowires on silicon: One-dimensional heterogeneous epitaxy, bandgap engineering, and photovoltaics

Jae Cheol Shin, Kyou Hyun Kim, Ki Jun Yu, Hefei Hu, Leijun Yin, Cun Zheng Ning, John A. Rogers, Jian Min Zuo, Xiuling Li*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

110 Scopus citations

Abstract

We report on the one-dimensional (1D) heteroepitaxial growth of In x Ga 1-x As (x = 0.2-1) nanowires (NWs) on silicon (Si) substrates over almost the entire composition range using metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) without catalysts or masks. The epitaxial growth takes place spontaneously producing uniform, nontapered, high aspect ratio NW arrays with a density exceeding 1 ×10 8 /cm 2 . NW diameter (∼30-250 nm) is inversely proportional to the lattice mismatch between In x Ga 1-x As and Si (∼4-11%), and can be further tuned by MOCVD growth condition. Remarkably, no dislocations have been found in all composition In x Ga 1-x As NWs, even though massive stacking faults and twin planes are present. Indium rich NWs show more zinc-blende and Ga-rich NWs exhibit dominantly wurtzite polytype, as confirmed by scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and photoluminescence spectra. Solar cells fabricated using an n-type In 0.3 Ga 0.7 As NW array on a p-type Si(111) substrate with a ∼2.2% area coverage, operates at an open circuit voltage, V oc , and a short circuit current density, J sc , of 0.37 V and 12.9 mA/cm 2 , respectively. This work represents the first systematic report on direct 1D heteroepitaxy of ternary In x Ga 1-x As NWs on silicon substrate in a wide composition/bandgap range that can be used for wafer-scale monolithic heterogeneous integration for high performance photovoltaics.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4831-4838
Number of pages8
JournalNano letters
Volume11
Issue number11
DOIs
StatePublished - Nov 9 2011

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Bioengineering
  • Chemistry(all)
  • Materials Science(all)
  • Condensed Matter Physics
  • Mechanical Engineering

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    Shin, J. C., Kim, K. H., Yu, K. J., Hu, H., Yin, L., Ning, C. Z., Rogers, J. A., Zuo, J. M., & Li, X. (2011). In x Ga 1-x as nanowires on silicon: One-dimensional heterogeneous epitaxy, bandgap engineering, and photovoltaics. Nano letters, 11(11), 4831-4838. https://doi.org/10.1021/nl202676b