In-vivo imaging of neuroinflammation in veterans with Gulf War illness

Zeynab Alshelh, Daniel S. Albrecht, Courtney Bergan, Oluwaseun Akeju, Daniel J. Clauw, Lisa Conboy, Robert R. Edwards, Minhae Kim, Yvonne C. Lee, Ekaterina Protsenko, Vitaly Napadow, Kimberly Sullivan, Marco L. Loggia*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

31 Scopus citations

Abstract

Gulf War Illness (GWI) is a chronic disorder affecting approximately 30% of the veterans who served in the 1991 Gulf War. It is characterised by a constellation of symptoms including musculoskeletal pain, cognitive problems and fatigue. The cause of GWI is not definitively known but exposure to neurotoxicants, the prophylactic use of pyridostigmine bromide (PB) pills, and/or stressors during deployment have all been suspected to play some pathogenic role. Recent animal models of GWI have suggested that neuroinflammatory mechanisms may be implicated, including a dysregulated activation of microglia and astrocytes. However, neuroinflammation has not previously been directly observed in veterans with GWI. To measure GWI-related neuroinflammation in GW veterans, we conducted a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) study using [11C]PBR28, which binds to the 18 kDa translocator protein (TSPO), a protein upregulated in activated microglia/macrophages and astrocytes. Veterans with GWI (n = 15) and healthy controls (HC, n = 33, including a subgroup of healthy GW veterans, HCVET, n = 8), were examined using integrated [11C]PBR28 PET/MRI. Standardized uptake values normalized by occipital cortex signal (SUVR) were compared across groups and against clinical variables and circulating inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-6 and IL-1β). SUVR were validated against volume of distribution ratio (n = 13). Whether compared to the whole HC group, or only the HCVET subgroup, veterans with GWI demonstrated widespread cortical elevations in [11C]PBR28 PET signal, in areas including precuneus, prefrontal, primary motor and somatosensory cortices. There were no significant group differences in the plasma levels of the inflammatory cytokines evaluated. There were also no significant correlations between [11C]PBR28 PET signal and clinical variables or circulating inflammatory cytokines. Our study provides the first direct evidence of brain upregulation of the neuroinflammatory marker TSPO in veterans with GWI and supports the exploration of neuroinflammation as a therapeutic target for this disorder.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)498-507
Number of pages10
JournalBrain, Behavior, and Immunity
Volume87
DOIs
StatePublished - Jul 2020

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Immunology
  • Endocrine and Autonomic Systems
  • Behavioral Neuroscience

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