In vivo imaging of subcutaneous structures using functional photoacoustic microscopy

Hao F. Zhang, Konstantin Maslov, Lihong V. Wang*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

185 Scopus citations


Functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM) is a hybrid technology that permits noninvasive imaging of the optical absorption contrast in subcutaneous biological tissues. fPAM uses a focused ultrasonic transducer to detect high-frequency photoacoustic (PA) signals. Volumetric images of biological tissues can be formed by two-dimensional raster scanning, and functional parameters can be further extracted from spectral measurements. fPAM is safe and applicable to animals as well as humans. This protocol provides guidelines for parameter selection, system alignment, imaging operation, laser safety and data processing for in vivo fPAM. It currently takes ∼100 min to carry out this protocol, including ∼50 min for data acquisition using a 10-Hz pulse-repetition-rate laser system. The data acquisition time, however, can be significantly reduced by using a laser system with a higher pulse repetition rate.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)797-804
Number of pages8
JournalNature Protocols
Issue number4
StatePublished - Apr 2007

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology(all)


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