Incidence of Hepatitis C Virus Infection in the Human Immunodeficiency Virus Outpatient Study Cohort, 2000-2013

the HIV Outpatient Study Investigators

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

13 Scopus citations


Background. There are few recent studies of incident hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients in the United States. Methods. We studied HIV Outpatient Study (HOPS) participants seen in 9 HIV-specialty clinics who had ≥1 clinical encounter during 2000-2013 and ≥2 HCV-related tests, the first of which was a negative HCV antibody test (Ab). Hepatitis C virus incident cases were identified by first positive HCV Ab, viral load, or genotype. We assessed rates of incident HCV overall, by calendar intervals, and by demographic and HIV risk strata, and we explored risk factors for incident HCV using Cox proportional hazards models. Results. The 1941 eligible patients (median age 40 years, 23% female, 61% men who had sex with men [MSM], and 3% persons who injected drugs [PWID]) experienced 102 (5.3%) incident HCV infections for an overall incidence of 1.07 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.87-1.30) per 100 person-years (py). Hepatitis C virus incidence decreased from 1.83 in 2000-2003 to 0.88 in 2011- 2013 (P = .024), with decreases observed (P < .05) among PWID and heterosexuals, but not among MSM. Overall, MSM comprised 59% of incident cases, and PWID were at most risk for incident HCV infection (adjusted hazard ratio [aHR] for PWID = 4.62 and 95% CI = 2.11-10.13; for MSM, aHR = 1.48 and 95% CI = 0.86-2.55 compared with heterosexuals). Conclusions. Among HIV-infected patients in care during 2000-2013, incidence of HCV infection exceeded 1 case per 100 py. Our findings support recommendations for annual HCV screenings for HIV-infected persons, including persons with only MSM risk, to enable HCV diagnosis and treatment for coinfected individuals.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Article numberofx076
JournalOpen Forum Infectious Diseases
Issue number2
StatePublished - Mar 1 2017


  • HIV cohort
  • HIV/HCV coinfection
  • Hepatitis C
  • Incidence
  • Risk factors

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Infectious Diseases
  • Oncology


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