Incidence of Infertility and Pregnancy Complications in US Female Surgeons

Erika L. Rangel*, Manuel Castillo-Angeles, Sarah Rae Easter, Rachel B. Atkinson, Ankush Gosain, Yue Yung Hu, Zara Cooper, Tanujit Dey, Eugene Kim

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

91 Scopus citations


Importance: While surgeons often delay pregnancy and childbearing because of training and establishing early careers, little is known about risks of infertility and pregnancy complications among female surgeons. Objective: To describe the incidence of infertility and pregnancy complications among female surgeons in the US and to identify workplace factors associated with increased risk compared with a sociodemographically similar nonsurgeon population. Design, Setting, and Participants: This self-administered survey questionnaire was electronically distributed and collected from November 2020 to January 2021 through multiple surgical societies in the US and social media among male and female attending and resident surgeons with children. Nonchildbearing surgeons were asked to answer questions regarding the pregnancies of their nonsurgeon partners as applicable. Exposures: Surgical profession; work, operative, and overnight call schedules. Main Outcomes and Measures: Descriptive data on pregnancy loss were collected for female surgeons. Use of assisted reproductive technology was compared between male and female surgeons. Pregnancy and neonatal complications were compared between female surgeons and female nonsurgeon partners of surgeons. Results: A total of 850 surgeons (692 women and 158 men) were included in this survey study. Female surgeons with female partners were excluded because of lack of clarity about who carried the pregnancy. Because the included nonchildbearing population was therefore made up of male individuals with female partners, this group is referred to throughout the study as male surgeons. The median (IQR) age was 40 (36-45) years. Of 692 female surgeons surveyed, 290 (42.0%) had a pregnancy loss, more than twice the rate of the general population. Compared with male surgeons, female surgeons had fewer children (mean [SD], 1.8 [0.8] vs 2.3 [1.1]; P <.001), were more likely to delay having children because of surgical training (450 of 692 [65.0%] vs 69 of 158 [43.7%]; P <.001), and were more likely to use assisted reproductive technology (172 of 692 [24.9%] vs 27 of 158 [17.1%]; P =.04). Compared with female nonsurgeon partners, female surgeons were more likely to have major pregnancy complications (311 of 692 [48.3%] vs 43 of 158 [27.2%]; P <.001), which was significant after controlling for age, work hours, in vitro fertilization use, and multiple gestation (odds ratio [OR], 1.72; 95% CI, 1.11-2.66). Female surgeons operating 12 or more hours per week during the last trimester of pregnancy were at higher risk of major pregnancy complications compared with those operating less than 12 hours per week (OR, 1.57; 95% CI, 1.08-2.26). Compared with female nonsurgeon partners, female surgeons were more likely to have musculoskeletal disorders (255 of 692 [36.9%] vs 29 of 158 [18.4%]; P <.001), nonelective cesarean delivery (170 of 692 [25.5%] vs 24 of 158 [15.3%]; P =.01), and postpartum depression (77 of 692 [11.1%] vs 9 of 158 [5.7%]; P =.04). Conclusions and Relevance: This national survey study highlighted increased medical risks of infertility and pregnancy complications among female surgeons. With an increasing percentage of women representing the surgical workforce, changing surgical culture to support pregnancy is paramount to reducing the risk of major pregnancy complications, use of fertility interventions, or involuntary childlessness because of delayed attempts at childbearing.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)905-915
Number of pages11
JournalJAMA surgery
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2021

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery


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