Incidence of sternal wound infection after tracheostomy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Hadi Toeg*, Daniel French, Sebastien Gilbert, Fraser Rubens

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticle

6 Scopus citations

Abstract

Purpose This systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine whether timing or type of tracheostomy was associated with superficial or deep sternal wound infections after cardiac surgery. Methods All studies reporting the incidence of sternal wound infection after tracheostomy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery were collected and analyzed. Subgroup analyses determined a priori included timing of tracheostomy and type of procedure (open vs percutaneous). All analyses used the random effects model. A meta-regression analysis was performed on the proportion of sternal wound infection and number of days between tracheostomy and initial cardiac surgery. Results A total of 13 studies met inclusion criteria. The incidence of sternal wound infection across all studies reported was 7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 4-10). The percutaneous tracheostomy group had a sternal wound infection proportion of 3% (95% CI, 1-8), and the open tracheostomy group had a sternal wound infection proportion of 9% (95% CI, 5-14). The incidence of sternal wound infection with early (<14 days) (7%; 95% CI, 3-11) versus late (≥14 days) (7%; 95% CI, 4-10) tracheostomy was similar. Meta-regression demonstrated no significant relationship between incidence of sternal wound infection and number of days between tracheostomy and initial cardiac surgery (R2 = 6.13%, P = .72). Reported secondary outcomes included 30-day and 1-year mortality, which were high at 23% (95% CI, 19-28) and 63% (95% CI, 43-80), respectively. Conclusions The incidence of sternal wound infection after tracheostomy in patients undergoing cardiac surgery remains high at 7% (95% CI, 4-10). Open or percutaneous tracheostomy after cardiac surgery is a feasible option because the incidence of sternal wound infection and short-term mortality are comparable. Moreover, the timing of tracheostomy (early or late) had comparable rates of sternal wound infection and short-term mortality.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)1394-1400.e7
JournalJournal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
Volume153
Issue number6
DOIs
StatePublished - Jun 2017

Keywords

  • cardiac surgery
  • sternal wound infection
  • tracheostomy

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Surgery
  • Pulmonary and Respiratory Medicine
  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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