Incorporating patient-centered factors into heart failure readmission risk prediction: A mixed-methods study

Faraz S. Ahmad, Benjamin French, Kathryn H. Bowles, Jonathan Sevilla-Cazes, Anne Jaskowiak-Barr, Thomas R. Gallagher, Shreya Kangovi, Lee R. Goldberg, Frances K. Barg, Stephen E. Kimmel*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

7 Scopus citations


Background: Capturing and incorporating patient-centered factors into 30-day readmission risk prediction after hospitalized heart failure (HF) could improve the modest performance of current models. Methods: Using a mixed-methods approach, we developed a patient-centered survey and evaluated the additional predictive utility of the survey compared to a traditional readmission risk model (the Krumholz et al. model). Area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) and the Hosmer-Lemeshow goodness-of-fit statistic quantified the performance of both models. We measured the amount of model improvement with the addition of patient-centered factors to the Krumholz et al. model with the integrated discrimination improvement (IDI). In an exploratory analysis, we used hierarchical clustering algorithms to identify groups with similar survey responses and tested for differences between clusters using standard descriptive statistics. Results: From 3/24/2014 to 3/12/2015, 183 patients hospitalized with HF were enrolled from an urban, academic health system and followed for 30 days after discharge. The Krumholz et al. plus patient-centered factors model had similar-to-slightly lower performance (AUC [95%CI]:0.62 [0.52, 0.71]; goodness-of-fit P =.10) than the Krumholz et al. model (AUC [95%CI]:0.66 [0.57, 0.76]; goodness-of-fit P =.19). The IDI (95%CI) was 0.003 (−0.014,0.020). We identified three patient clusters based on patient-centered survey responses. The clusters differed with respect to gender, self-rated health, employment status, and prior hospitalization frequency (all P <.05). Conclusions: The addition of patient-centered factors did not improve 30-day readmission model performance. Rather than designing interventions based on predicted readmission risk, tailoring interventions to all patients, based on their characteristics, could inform the design of targeted, readmission reduction strategies.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)75-82
Number of pages8
JournalAmerican heart journal
StatePublished - Jun 2018

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine


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