Incorporating RTI in a hybrid model of reading disability

Mercedes Spencer*, Richard K. Wagner, Christopher Schatschneider, Jamie M. Quinn, Danielle Lopez, Yaacov Petscher

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

36 Scopus citations


The present study seeks to evaluate a hybrid model of identification that incorporates response to instruction and intervention (RTI) as one of the key symptoms of reading disability. The 1-year stability of alternative operational definitions of reading disability was examined in a large-scale sample of students who were followed longitudinally from first to second grade. The results confirmed previous findings of limited stability for single-criterion-based operational definitions of reading disability. However, substantially greater stability was obtained for a hybrid model of reading disability that incorporates RTI with other common symptoms of reading disability.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)161-171
Number of pages11
JournalLearning Disability Quarterly
Issue number3
StatePublished - Aug 2014


  • Hybrid model
  • Identification
  • RTI
  • Reading disability

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Education
  • General Health Professions
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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