Individual differences in the phase and amplitude of the human circadian temperature rhythm: With an emphasis on morningness-eveningness

Erin K. Baehr, William Revelle, Charmane I. Eastman*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

434 Scopus citations


We studied the relationship between the phase and the amplitude of the circadian temperature rhythm using questionnaires that measure individual differences in personality variables, variables that relate to circadian rhythms, age and sex. The ambulatory core body temperature of 101 young men and 71 young women was recorded continuously over 6 days. The temperature minimum (T(min)) and amplitude (T(amp)) were derived by fitting a complex cosine curve to each day's data for each subject. Participants completed the Horne-Ostberg Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), the Circadian Type Inventory (CTI) and the MMPI-2, scored for the Psychopathology-5 (PSY-5) personality variables. We found that the average T(min) occurred at 03.50 h for morning-types (M-types), 05.02 h for the neither-types and 06.01 h for evening-types (E-types). Figures were presented that could provide an estimate of T(min) given an individual's morningness-eveningness score or weekend wake time. The T(min) occurred at approximately the middle of the 8-h sleep period, but it occurred closer to wake in subjects with later T(min) values and increasing eveningness. In other words, E-types slept on an earlier part of their temperature cycle than M-types. This difference in the phase-relationship between temperature and sleep may explain why E-types are more alert at bedtime and sleepier after waking than M-types. The T(min) occurred about a half-hour later for men than women. Another interesting finding included an association between circadian rhythm temperature phase and amplitude, in that subjects with more delayed phases had larger amplitudes. The greater amplitude was due to lower nocturnal temperature.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)117-127
Number of pages11
JournalJournal of Sleep Research
Issue number2
StatePublished - 2000


  • Body temperature
  • Circadian rhythm
  • Eveningness
  • Human
  • Morningness
  • Sleep

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cognitive Neuroscience
  • Behavioral Neuroscience


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