Inertial sensor error reduction through calibration and sensor fusion

Stefan Lambrecht*, Samuel L. Nogueira, Magdo Bortole, Adriano A.G. Siqueira, Marco H. Terra, Eduardo Rocon, Jose L Pons

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

15 Scopus citations


This paper presents the comparison between cooperative and local Kalman Filters (KF) for estimating the absolute segment angle, under two calibration conditions. A simplified calibration, that can be replicated in most laboratories; and a complex calibration, similar to that applied by commercial vendors. The cooperative filters use information from either all inertial sensors attached to the body, Matricial KF; or use information from the inertial sensors and the potentiometers of an exoskeleton, Markovian KF. A one minute walking trial of a subject walking with a 6-DoF exoskeleton was used to assess the absolute segment angle of the trunk, thigh, shank, and foot. The results indicate that regardless of the segment and filter applied, the more complex calibration always results in a significantly better performance compared to the simplified calibration. The interaction between filter and calibration suggests that when the quality of the calibration is unknown the Markovian KF is recommended. Applying the complex calibration, the Matricial and Markovian KF perform similarly, with average RMSE below 1.22 degrees. Cooperative KFs perform better or at least equally good as Local KF, we therefore recommend to use cooperative KFs instead of local KFs for control or analysis of walking.

Original languageEnglish (US)
JournalSensors (Switzerland)
Issue number2
StatePublished - Feb 17 2016


  • Biomechanics
  • Calibration
  • Exoskeleton
  • Inertial sensor
  • Kalman Filter
  • Motion analysis

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Information Systems
  • Instrumentation
  • Atomic and Molecular Physics, and Optics
  • Electrical and Electronic Engineering
  • Biochemistry


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