Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been implicated as a risk factor for prostate cancer, however, the mechanism of how IBD leads to prostate tumorigenesis is not known. Here, we investigated whether chronic intestinal inflammation leads to pro-inflammatory changes associated with tumorigenesis in the prostate. Methods: Using clinical samples of men with IBD who underwent prostatectomy, we analyzed whether prostate tumors had differences in lymphocyte infiltrate compared to non-IBD controls. In a mouse model of chemically-induced intestinal inflammation, we investigated whether chronic intestinal inflammation could be transferred to the wild-type mouse prostate. In addition, mouse prostates were evaluated for activation of pro-oncogenic signaling and genomic instability. Results: A higher proportion of men with IBD had T and B lymphocyte infiltration within prostate tumors. Mice with chronic colitis showed significant increases in prostatic CD45 + leukocyte infiltration and elevation of three pro-inflammatory cytokines—TIMP-1, CCL5, and CXCL1 and activation of AKT and NF-kB signaling pathways. Lastly, mice with chronic colitis had greater prostatic oxidative stress/DNA damage, and prostate epithelial cells had undergone cell cycle arrest. Conclusions: These data suggest chronic intestinal inflammation is associated with an inflammatory-rich, pro-tumorigenic prostatic phenotype which may explain how gut inflammation fosters prostate cancer development in men with IBD.
ASJC Scopus subject areas
- Cancer Research