Background & Aims: Crohn's disease commonly recurs after intestinal resection. We evaluated whether the administration of infliximab after resective intestinal surgery for Crohn's disease reduces postoperative recurrence. Methods: We randomly assigned 24 patients with Crohn's disease who had undergone ileocolonic resection to receive intravenous infliximab (5 mg/kg), administered within 4 weeks of surgery and continued for 1 year, or placebo. The primary end point was the proportion of patients with endoscopic recurrence at 1 year. Secondary end points were clinical recurrence and remission and histologic recurrence. Results: The rate of endoscopic recurrence at 1 year was significantly lower in the infliximab group (1 of 11 patients; 9.1%) compared with the placebo group (11 of 13 patients; 84.6%) (P = .0006). There was a nonsignificant higher proportion of patients in clinical remission in the infliximab group (8 of 10; 80.0%) compared with the placebo group (7 of 13; 53.8%) (P = .38). The histologic recurrence rate at 1 year was significantly lower in the infliximab group (3 of 11 patients; 27.3%) compared with the placebo group (11 of 13 patients; 84.6%) (P = .01). The occurrence of adverse events was similar between the placebo and infliximab groups, and none occurred in the immediate postoperative period. Conclusions: Administration of infliximab after intestinal resective surgery was effective at preventing endoscopic and histologic recurrence of Crohn's disease.
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