Influence of activation origin, lead number, and lead configuration on the noninvasive electrophysiologic detection of cardiac allograft rejection.

J. S. Pirolo*, J. S. Tweddell, E. M. Brunt, R. Pyo, T. S. Shuman, James Lewis Cox, T. B. Ferguson

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

8 Scopus citations


An improved method of cardiac allograft surveillance, less invasive than endomyocardial biopsy (EMB), is required as the scope of cardiac transplantation increases. The correlation between changes in telemetrically recorded intramyocardial electrograms and the degree of rejection was examined. The electrophysiological parameter assessed was the unipolar peak-to-peak amplitude (UPPA), defined as the magnitude of the first, fast negative deflection of the QRS complex in unipolar electrograms. A canine model of intrathoracic heterotopic cardiac transplantation was employed in which each graft was instrumented with four unipolar intramyocardial electrodes (two left ventricle [LV] and two right ventricle [RV]) connected to two telemetric pacemakers. Immunosuppression was begun at operation and continued for a variable period of time following the acquisition of control data (postoperative days 6-10). Graft status was monitored via biweekly EMB. Intramyocardial electrograms were recorded from each lead during sinus rhythm and 36 atrial and ventricular pacing protocols on a daily basis. The daily UPPA was calculated for each rhythm sequence and expressed as percent of control UPPA. EMBs were qualitatively graded and assigned a quantitative rejection score (0 = none; 3 = severe). Criteria for rejection were rejection score (RS) greater than or equal to 0.66 or daily UPPA less than 85% control. Eight animals were included for study and, in all animals, rejection was documented. A total of 30 EMBs were obtained; in 11 EMBs rejection was present by histological criteria. Analysis of grouped UPPA data from all four leads revealed a sensitivity and specificity of 91% and 84%, respectively, in the detection of rejection. Analysis of grouped sinus UPPA data from the two LV leads revealed a sensitivity of 94% and 91%, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)III344-354
Issue number5 Suppl
StatePublished - Nov 1991

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Cardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
  • Physiology (medical)


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