Influence of Rare-Earth Ion Radius on Metal-Metal Charge Transfer in Trinuclear Mixed-Valent Complexes

Cole Carter, Yosi Kratish*, Tobin J. Marks*

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

2 Scopus citations


We report the synthesis and characterization of a highly conjugated bisferrocenyl pyrrolediimine ligand, Fc2PyrDIH (1), and its trinuclear complexes with rare earth ions─(Fc2PyrDI)M(N(TMS)2)2 (2-M, M = Sc, Y, Lu, La). Crystal structures, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra, and ultraviolet/visible/near-infrared (UV/vis-NIR) data are presented. The latter are in good agreement with DFT calculations, illuminating the impact of the rare earth ionic radius on NIR charge transfer excitations. For [2-Sc]+, the charge transfer is at 11,500 cm-1, while for [2-Y]+, only a d-d transition at 8000 cm-1 is observed. Lu has an ionic radius in between Sc and Y, and the [2-Lu]+ complex exhibits both transitions. From time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) analysis, we assign the 11,500 cm-1 transition as a mixture of metal-to-ligand charge transfer (MLCT) and metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT), rather than pure metal-to-metal CT because it has significant ligand character. Typically, the ferrocenes moieties have high rotational freedom in bis-ferrocenyl mixed valent complexes. However, in the present (Fc2PyrDI)M(N(TMS)2)2 complexes, ligand-ligand repulsions lock the rotational freedom so that rare-earth ionic radius-dependent geometric differences increasingly influence orbital overlap as the ionic radius falls.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)4799-4813
Number of pages15
JournalInorganic chemistry
Issue number12
StatePublished - Mar 27 2023

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Physical and Theoretical Chemistry
  • Inorganic Chemistry


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