Influenza vaccination in the organ transplant recipient: Review and summary recommendations

D. Kumar*, E. A. Blumberg, L. Danziger-Isakov, C. N. Kotton, N. B. Halasa, M. G. Ison, R. K. Avery, M. Green, U. D. Allen, K. M. Edwards, G. Miller, M. G. Michaels

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Contribution to journalArticlepeer-review

133 Scopus citations


Influenza virus causes a spectrum of illness in transplant recipients with a high rate of lower respiratory disease. Seasonal influenza vaccination is an important public health measure recommended for transplant recipients and their close contacts. Vaccine has been shown to be safe and generally well tolerated in both adult and pediatric transplant recipients. However, responses to vaccine are variable and are dependent on various factors including time from transplantation and specific immunosuppressive medication. Seasonal influenza vaccine has demonstrated safety and no conclusive evidence exists for a link between vaccination and allograft dysfunction. Annually updated trivalent inactivated influenza vaccines have been available and routinely used for several decades, although newer influenza vaccination formulations including high-dose vaccine, adjuvanted vaccine, quadrivalent inactivated vaccine and vaccine by intradermal delivery system are now available or will be available in the near future. Safety and immunogenicity data of these new formulations in transplant recipients requires investigation. In this document, we review the current state of knowledge on influenza vaccines in transplant recipients and make recommendations on the use of vaccine in both adult and pediatric organ transplant recipients.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Pages (from-to)2020-2030
Number of pages11
JournalAmerican Journal of Transplantation
Issue number10
StatePublished - Oct 2011


  • Consensus
  • immunogenicity
  • respiratory virus

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Transplantation
  • Pharmacology (medical)
  • Immunology and Allergy


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