Information Bottleneck Attribution for Visual Explanations of Diagnosis and Prognosis

Ugur Demir*, Ismail Irmakci, Elif Keles, Ahmet Topcu, Ziyue Xu, Concetto Spampinato, Sachin Jambawalikar, Evrim Turkbey, Baris Turkbey, Ulas Bagci

*Corresponding author for this work

Research output: Chapter in Book/Report/Conference proceedingConference contribution

Abstract

Visual explanation methods have an important role in the prognosis of the patients where the annotated data is limited or unavailable. There have been several attempts to use gradient-based attribution methods to localize pathology from medical scans without using segmentation labels. This research direction has been impeded by the lack of robustness and reliability. These methods are highly sensitive to the network parameters. In this study, we introduce a robust visual explanation method to address this problem for medical applications. We provide an innovative visual explanation algorithm for general purpose and as an example application we demonstrate its effectiveness for quantifying lesions in the lungs caused by the Covid-19 with high accuracy and robustness without using dense segmentation labels. This approach overcomes the drawbacks of commonly used Grad-CAM and its extended versions. The premise behind our proposed strategy is that the information flow is minimized while ensuring the classifier prediction stays similar. Our findings indicate that the bottleneck condition provides a more stable severity estimation than the similar attribution methods. The source code will be publicly available upon publication.

Original languageEnglish (US)
Title of host publicationMachine Learning in Medical Imaging - 12th International Workshop, MLMI 2021, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2021, Proceedings
EditorsChunfeng Lian, Xiaohuan Cao, Islem Rekik, Xuanang Xu, Pingkun Yan
PublisherSpringer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Pages396-405
Number of pages10
ISBN (Print)9783030875886
DOIs
StatePublished - 2021
Event12th International Workshop on Machine Learning in Medical Imaging, MLMI 2021, held in conjunction with 24th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention, MICCAI 2021 - Virtual, Online
Duration: Sep 27 2021Sep 27 2021

Publication series

NameLecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics)
Volume12966 LNCS
ISSN (Print)0302-9743
ISSN (Electronic)1611-3349

Conference

Conference12th International Workshop on Machine Learning in Medical Imaging, MLMI 2021, held in conjunction with 24th International Conference on Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention, MICCAI 2021
CityVirtual, Online
Period9/27/219/27/21

Keywords

  • Covid-19
  • Information bottleneck attribution
  • Visual explanations
  • Weakly supervised

ASJC Scopus subject areas

  • Theoretical Computer Science
  • Computer Science(all)

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